Monday, June 3, 2013

Breed Specific Legislation


 

 

Breed specific legislation (BSL) is a discriminative way to rid some counties of certain breeds of dogs. Breed specific legislation is a law passed by a legislative body of government which refers to specific breeds of dogs. In some counties (in different states) Pit bulls are banned. Many times breeds get banned because of certain dangerous things an independent dog does.
In many counties officers have been trained to recognize a “pit bull” by profiling. Officers “recognize” the pit bulls by using a checklist. This checklist includes features such as a straight long tail, a square-ish head, and a lean muscular body. If a dog meets these requirements then it is a “pit bull”. If a dog matches even half of this checklist, it is still considered a pit bull. Breed specific legislation is so bad in some areas, that if your dog meets the requirements of that checklist, it could be taken away and euthanized.
According to the ASPCA (the American Society for Prevention of Cruelty towards Animals), pit bulls were genetically bred as fighting dogs. This is why so many people use pit bulls as fighting dogs, which then leads to the fierce dog that people make the pit bull out to be. Another thing that could scare people is the muscular frame of the pit bull, with a thick neck, muscular body, and square head people can build pit bulls up to be ferocious, but really pit bulls can be quite gentle, loving, and kind. But unfortunately most that see or hear about one or two pit bull attacks tend to think that pit bulls are monsters. This could be the reason why people think that pit bulls and other certain breeds should be banned.
Early in the last century pit bulls were an American favorite.  In fact Helen Keller owned one, and Laura Ingalls Wilder owned one. Another interesting fact is that pit bulls used to be known as the nanny dog because they were great around children.  That may seem hard to believe given the way the media portrays pit bulls, which is often in the worst way possible, but if you look at this picture you will see that pit bulls can be quite gentle.
àhttps://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/p480x480/581891_649066691774285_247925414_n.jpg  Hard to believe that these guys are killers right?
According to pitbulls.org The CDC (Center for Disease Control) agrees that breed specific legislation is a substandard way to identify pit bulls. Because of the fact that many breeds have similar appearances DNA testing is the only real way to truly identify pit bulls. Pitbulls.org also says that the ATTS (American Temperament Test Society) did a test in 2008; for this test, they took different breeds of dogs on a walk, on this walk the dogs were exposed to sights, sounds, and other dogs. There were neutral encounters friendly encounters and threatening encounters, the dog would fail the test if it showed unprovoked aggression, panic without recovery, or strong avoidance. The APBT (American Pit Bull Terrier) passed the test at a rate of 85.3%. This score is above the Collies, golden retrievers, and other “family dogs”. The average score of dogs in this test is 77%.
According to pitbulls.org, BSL has neither reduced the number of dog bites nor the amount of fatal incidents by canines. In the UK, dog bites amazingly increased by 50% after they passed the Dangerous Dog Act in 1997 which banned all pit bull type dogs and 3 other breeds.  Best Friends Animal Society (BFAS) put together a calculator showing the amount of money that cities and towns across the country that taxpayers would have to pay. Denver Colorado’s taxpayers pay 803,170 for their BSL law; this .includes enforcement, housing, vet care, euthanasia and disposal, any litigation costs, and DNA testing, New York City pays 12,895,950 and Chicago pays 3,950,530.
            When you look at the cost and the inhumanity of Breed Specific Legislation, it seems to be a waste of time and taxpayers money. Breed Specific Legislation is not only ineffective but also very cruel. It is not very fair to submit a whole breed of dogs to this inhumane behavior than it is just the one dog who committed the act.


 

 

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

George B. Mclellan


General George B. Mclellan (also called “young napoleon” and “little mac”) had a detrimental impact on the onset of the Civil War; this is because, no matter what, he was reluctant to launch many attacks. He built a mighty army, but as he added more and more troops he also became wary of the confederates army. This led to his removal from the General-in-Chief, though he remained commander of the Potomac army. Mclellans cautiousness allowed him to be tricked by Joseph E. Johnston, Johnson tricked Mclellan into believing he had a large force, when really it was smaller than Mclellan’s

Mclellan, no matter how many troops he outnumbered his enemies by, would not attack. Joseph E. Johnston, as stated already, tricked Mclellan into believing that he had a large force. Because of this Mclellan did not attack. He did continue to pursue Johnston but, because Mclellan did not attack, he and his army were ambushed at Seven Pines, in this battle Johnston was wounded and was replaced by Robert E. Lee. This ambush forced Mclellan to retreat; Mclellan had many defeats like this, and showed much cowardice in each battle he was in.

Because of these actions, Abraham Lincoln discharged Mclellan. Henry Halleck was named the new General-in-Chief while John Pope was made the commander of the army of the Potomac. Since John Pope was not able to capture Richmond, Mclellan was brought back. The troops delighted in this because they had a strong bond with Mclellan. In 1862 Mclellan planned a campaign centered on a captured document that told of General Lee’s plans to invade Maryland. Mclellan managed to thwart Lees plan, they had many small skirmishes and finally a large battle erupted. Both armies came out bloody and beaten, but Mclellans army had won.

Despite what he did at Maryland, he was still very cautious. This cautiousness cost him many vital battles. A few of these battles may have even won the war! This upset Lincoln very much, he went to talk to Mclellan at one of his camps, and when he brought up the subject, Mclellan said that the army needed time to rest.

Mclellan was too cautious and this led to his final days in the war. Mclellan thought he was the sole shining star in the war, he was wrong. He was good friends with his troops, and when he did attack he usually won. But this could not stop him from being relieved of duty for the last time in November of 1862.

Thursday, February 14, 2013

H.A.L.T


                                       H.A.L.T
                        (High and Low Tides)
Some people may think that high tide is caused because the moon attracts the water to itself; this would make sense IF there was one high/low tide on each side of the earth a day. What really happens is that the side of the earth both close and away from the moon gets high tides. Now I will explain how this happens, the earth and moon rotate around each other, each pulling the other towards its own atmosphere. The moon attracts every piece of matter on earth towards itself, the side that is closest to the moon gets the most force while the side away from the moon gets less force. The difference in forces does not deform the earth very much, however it does deform the ocean, therefore when the moon is on a side of the earth, that side gets a high tide as well as the opposite side. Low tides are caused when the moon is at a right angle with an ocean, when the force on the water matches that of the moon on the earth pretty closely.
Now you may be asking “why doesn't the sun create any tides?” this is because while the suns pull on the earth is larger, it is much farther from the earth, so the force on the sides of the earth that the sun is on is not as much. But when the sun and the moon are aligned, there are very strong high and low tides. This kind of high/low tide is called Spring tide, though it has nothing to do with the actual season. Spring tides happen when there is a full moon and a new moon. Now since there are two kinds of tides a day, how much time does it take to get from one to another?
There are about 12 hours and 25 minutes between each high and low tide (but really who measures that time?) The proxigean tide is a rare and very high tide. This tide happens when the moon is unusually close to the earth, and is in the new moon phase. This tide occurs once every 1.5 years or so.
                                                Fun facts!
The flow of water from high tide to low tide is called the Ebb tide.
The weakest tides are during quarter moons.
The force from the moon can move the earths surfaces about 55 centimeters (22 inches) a day! This is called a terrestrial tide.
Terrestrial tides may cause volcanic eruptions.
A tidal bore is a tide that pushes against rivers current when it is emptying into the ocean.
Red tide has nothing to do with actual tides.
Rip tides run along the bottom of the ocean.
The land in the tidal area is called the intertidal zone.
Sea stars are accustomed to life in tide pools, they have tough skin which allows them to withstand tides and waves.
Main information from..
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Monday, February 4, 2013

Dogs.


                                                      DOGS!
Dogs, with over 400 breeds and counting, dogs are a fast growing species. No two dogs are the same. They mutate quickly and are all made by us, think of the difference between a Bull dog and a Chihuahua, the Bull dog is massive and the Chihuahua is the tiniest species of dog in the world! And we created them all. Man strives for a perfect beast, the picture of our hopes and dreams. One example of this is the Dogo Argentino. The Dogo Argentino is used to track down wild boars and get them into submission, sounds pretty fierce right? Well, the Dogo is actually very protective of small children and docile around humans in general. The Dogo is the picture of our desires for perfection, it has many breeds within it, like the Bulldog, Mastiff, and Bull Terrier to start, this was a fierce hunting dog, but too aggressive to work in a pack and it did not have a great sense of smell. There was also the Pointer, a Great Dane, a Irish wolf hound, a mastiff, and a great pureness, finally the gentility comes from the boxer. The creators of this fascinating breed were 2 brothers from, you guessed it, Argentina.
Everyone knows that the dogs came from the wolf, but how did the wolf, a fierce aggressive soul, turn into the dog, man’s best friend? The turning of the wolf into the dog was likely an accident, for it was common for man to go out into the forest and capture an animal to keep it as a pet. The first evidence of dogs appeared in ancient Egyptian artwork. As time went by, one dog out of a pack may have been able to catch the small game faster than the others, so that dog would get rewarded. This dog would be healthy thanks to the special treatment and exercise, and healthier dogs mate better, so these dogs’ genes got passed down. This dog is here now, and it is called the Saluki. The Saluki is used in North Africa to hunt game, but in U.S.A it is used to race, it can get up to 40 MPH! at two points point during their stride, all 4 legs are in the air, traveling over 10 feet! Cool stuff right? Well there’s even more! They have the ability to turn on a dime, which is important for hunting.
The start of the majority of dog breeds started in 19th century Europe. People in Europe wanted everything changed; they even changed their livestock till they got it just the way they wanted! Finally the dogs turn came along, and this is where it started, middle class had many dogs, in fact dog breeding seemed to be a middle class activity. It’s because of us that the breeds of dogs have all they do, floppy ears, long tails, and a sharp sense of smell.  Many animals hear better than dogs, many humans can see better as well, but what dogs are the best in, is smell. They have around 225 MILLION olfactory receptors, compared to our 5-10 million. Their sense of smell, like almost everything else came from us and how we bred them. Dogs can even sniff out some cancers! Their ability in scenting early stages of cancer outdoes that of an X-ray or CT scan! The odors travel into the nose, Dogs can smell many different things at once, like another dog, barbecue, and the scent of its owners! Just past the nostrils the air is cleaned and then humidified it will travel through bony folds where the odor molecules are absorbed into a mucus layer, just below the surface they are bound to a olfactory cilium the meeting of the two generates nerve impulses which are transported via receptor rods to the dog’s huge olfactory bulb in the brain, where all this data is processed at the same time. People all over the world are breeding sniffing dogs to find trapped people, illicit drugs, and even explosives. In Moscow, in 2002, terrorists rigged a theater with explosives; the terrorists took over 800 Muscovites hostage. After a 3 day standoff, 129 of those hostages were killed, 41 gunmen were killed as well. Some days later someone who had contact and conspired with the terrorists was stopped at an airport a man named Clene Sulonov and his dog were responsible for the arrest. His dog detected traces of explosive compounds on a bulletproof vest inside the man’s luggage. The airline which caught him had Sulonov breed and train sniffing dogs, he trained them at an early age to detect explosives. These dogs are only in Russia, and they belong to Russia, Sulonov and the airline which caught the man, more importantly there were only 40 dogs at that time. In the 70s he designed his dog, he directed his attention towards the jackal, which has superior scent, so he mated dogs and jackals, and he mated their offspring, the dogs that he created were hard to train, so he added more dogs to the mix to make them easier to train. These dogs were a reindeer herding hound, a fox terrier, and a spitz, eventually, he got what he wanted. As the dogs grow older they are introduced to explosive compounds with other scents in their training area, their job is to find the right scent. And each time they find the explosive compound, they are rewarded. These dogs are different from German shepherds because they will search wherever they want with no boundaries, while a German Shepherd will wait till prompted to search. These dogs sense of smell is so acute, they can smell through things. But Sulonov is still not happy, so he adds more jackal to the mix and the experiment continues. Retrievers will chase and bring back anything with no condition, terriers dig after burrowed animals, hounds are more suited to herding, and pit bulls can be quite fierce with other dogs sometimes, can be quite gentle with people.
Dogs have the most physical and behavioral variations than any other mammal on this planet, but all dogs are quite similar, in fact there’s only a .2% difference in all dogs, amazing! Ever heard of tandem repeats? Well Dogs have many more than most do; tandem repeats are repeats in the genes of the genes in all living creatures. One number of repeats can create the differences in all the breeds of dogs in the world; this could be an explanation of how we can change dogs so easily! The things we can do with dogs cannot be done with other animals! Since dogs are able to give birth twice a year, the changes in dogs happen quite quickly. But in our pursuit of perfection, have we hurt our dogs more than we enhanced them? We have given them diseases, like blindness and hip dysplasia, cancer, deafness, and many other diseases that we have that the dogs have as well. One in Four dogs have some kind of health problem, thanks to us. Are we able to fix our own creations? The bull terrier can get OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Dalmatians white coat cause deafness. Breards have become prone to blindness while we were trying to create them. They cannot receive vitamin A when they are blind. But there is a way to fix this blindness, Vets will inject the gene pool that is not there in the dogs eye to fix the fact that they cannot receive vitamin A, they literally infect the eye with the good gene, and therefore fix the eye.
Tests were done on Dogs and a domesticated pack of wolves. When this test was in progress, the wolves were more independent while dogs looked to humans for guidance. We have created amazing creatures who listen to us, and they act as our friends. The dogs are fascinating, smarter than some people may think.  All in all, we have created an amazing creature.

Friday, February 1, 2013

Opposums!


                        Opossums
The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial found in the U.S, a marsupial is a mammal that usually has a pouch that they carry their young in. Unlike most other animals, the opossum babies do not fully develop in the womb instead they come out extremely early and continue development in the external pouch. But not all marsupials have this pouch, some marsupials babies have to hang on to their mothers nipples, like the short tailed opossum. The short tailed opossum must carry its young outside of its body. You may be thinking, “Why does he say opossum instead of possum?”
While many people like to call the opossum the “possum” this is incorrect, the correct pronunciation has the O. This is because there are animals in Australia and Asia that are called “possums” The possum looks quite weird, in fact, captain John Smith of the pilgrims said it had the face of a swine and the tail of a rat. Not a very nice description huh? In my opinion opossums are cute, but this is all my opinion, here is a picture of one to help you decide. http://www.aaanimalcontrol.com/professional-trapper/gallery/opossum017.jpg(picture from www.aaanimalcontrol.com) (sorry for it not being there, happened to me last time, sorry for the inconvenience)  Cute right?, well I think so anyways. As you can see this opossum is alone, this is because opossums are shy creatures, usually they are only together to mate, and the male leaves right after mating. Even the mother and babies are only together for a few months.
Many opossums  live only to be about 2 years of age, this is because they age very quickly, though they can live to be over 7 years old, and if they are not killed they will continue to grow. One way they can prevent predators from killing them is playing dead, when they do this their heartrate slows, breathing slows, and they really look dead, they also release a smell from there anal glands, like a skunk. Unfortunately this does not help against cars. Cars cause many opossum deaths today. Opossums are drawn to the highways during their nightly scavenging because of the roadkill, but unfortunately they are near sighted and cant see cars coming.
Opossums have no trouble finding food,for they eat many things like plants, animals whether they be dead or alive, and garbage.  Opossums have an interesting diet, this diet includes vegetables, nuts, seeds, eggs, worms, small fish, insects, mice, and frogs.  Sometimes they will even eat rattlesnakes, they're immune to the poison of Americas pit vipers.
opossums are small, some adults are only 10 pounds but some get to be 15.  There was one special oppossum in captivity and he got to be over 30 pounds.  Opossums have many predators like owls, bobcats, hawks, panthers, and especially dogs.  But these predators will only eat opossums when they're very very hungry.  The one predator  that opossums really have to watch out for is man themselves,  Possum and taters was a popular food for the early florida settlers.  And vultures will eat opossum roadkill.
Opossums are popular among scientists for drug studies relating to the human gastrointestinal system, for they have a bile system much like our own. In addition they breed very easily and produce many babies. This is an important trait in research animals. But while opossums are studied for drugs, they are also useful in aging studies since again, very few live to be over 2 years old.

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Emperor Penguins


          Emperor Penguins
Emperor Penguins stand at a height of 4 feet, making them the largest bird in the world the average height of other birds is about 45 inches. These penguins live in one of the coldest continents in the world, Antarctica. Because these penguins live in such a cold climate they physiologically adapt. In Antarctica the temperatures can reach (or maybe unreach?) around -76 degrees Fahrenheit. To escape this cold Emperor Penguins huddle together, imagine if you were in a helicopter, and hundreds of people were gathered around the area, bunched together, this is what like what you would see if you were looking at the Emperor Penguins bunched together. Emperor Penguins will move to different groups in the bunch, and when they get warm they will head towards the center so other penguins may enjoy the warmth. http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2012/twonewempero.jpg (Picture from Phys Org)
In the wild Emperor Penguins can live to be 15-20 years old, that’s a decent amount of time compared to many other animals. Emperor penguins live in Antarctica year round even during the winter. Amazing as that is, they can even breed in the harsh cold! The mother will lay an egg, and leave it there while they hunt for when the baby penguin hatches. While the female is out hunting, the male will hold the egg between its two feet; this is to keep the egg warm so that it doesn’t die. Every male in this “colony” as a large group of penguins is referred to, holds the egg. The males cannot let the egg fall off of his feet; otherwise the baby will suffer injuries. The Emperor Penguins will cover the egg with what is known as the “brood pouch” http://animal.discovery.com/games-quizzes/animal-dads-quiz/quiz-06-263x197.jpg(Picture from Animal Planet)
When Emperor penguins hunt, they can dive over 1,850 feet, deeper then any bird in the world! While the femle penguins are hunting, the male penguins eat nothing at all, and they could die at any moment. They have to face this for two months, for it takes two months for the female penguin to hunt! When the female penguins finally return, they are loaded with food to regurgitate to their baby.
Once the female penguin finally returns the male penguin heads outto sea to hunt for himself, his job is done. After the female penguin gets back, the role seems to switch, the male penguin is out hunting, though for himself not the baby, and the female is with the baby penguin.
When the female penguins are with the baby, they hold the babies in their own brood pouches to keep them warm. If the babies did not have this protection, they would surely die in the harsh cimate of Antartica. The female penguins keep doing this until December, antarticas summer, when the baby penguins are most likely ready to hunt for themselves.
While the penguins are hunting, they can stay under the water for over 20 minutes! Imagine how many fish they could catch if they stayed down there that long. The penguins are a sight to see when they are swimming, they are graceful underwater, its like they fly in the water. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTto7sZ_vZr1H32hIAilN8Ytu0MLs5zVibz5ru5_l-dmD3mnCWn(Picture from Free Vista Wallpapers)
But while penguins “fly” underwater, they are less then amazing at walking on land, so they will slide along the surface of the ice and snow to get where they are going.

https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT_USMUcLW7y0sXb-5IBBj8LNVlVXA5R-jUEAJnYKQTdXlJhntZ
(Picture from Tennessee Aquarium Blog)


                                                BIBLIOGRAPHY
(n.d) Emperor Penguins retrieved 1/18/13-1/22/13  http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/emperor-penguin/?source=A-to-Z

Friday, December 21, 2012

The Heron










This is the Heron, i got this series of pictures a few days ago, this bird is commonly seen in Florida